Dental fluorosis is a common disorder that involves the hypomineralisation of tooth enamel caused due to increased consumption of fluoride during enamel formation. Clinically it appears as intrinsic tooth discoloration, and, in few cases, it causes physical damage to the teeth.

Clinical appearance:
It appears as faint white lines/streaks on the teeth that occurs usually under 8yrs of age when younger children consume too much fluoride over a long period of time during the development of teeth under the gums. Once teeth erupt through the gums, you cannot develop fluorosis. . It is usually seen in the first eight years of life because that is the time when most permanent teeth are being formed.

• Inappropriate use of fluoride-containing dental products such as toothpaste and mouth rinses.
• Sometimes children swallow so much fluoridated toothpaste instead of spitting it out.
• Increased consumption of Fluoridated drinking water.
• Increased consumption of fluoride supplements during early childhood.
• Taking a fluoride supplement when fluoridated drinking water and the other sources already provide the right amount.
• Usage of fluoride tablets.

• White lace-like marks on the surface of the teeth.
• Dark brown stains on the teeth.
• Rough pitted enamel appearance.
• A natural tooth appears to be smooth and glossy.
• Pale creamy white appearance on the tooth surface.

Severity ranges from:
Questionable: Slight changes in the enamel which is in the form of white flecks to occasional white spots.
Very mild: Small opaque paper-white areas that are scattered over less than 25% of the tooth surface.
Mild: White opaque areas on the surface that are more extensive but still affect less than 50% of the surface.
Moderate: White opaque areas that affect more than 50% of the enamel surface.
Severe: All enamel surfaces are affected.