A deep bite is a malocclusion in which the upper front teeth excessively overlap the lower front teeth when back teeth are closed. This is also called an overbite.
While a deep bite may or may not be an esthetic concern for most patients, its presence usually indicates there are other problems that should be addressed.
Deep bite are caused by hereditary or genetics and is one of the most common malocclusion seen in children as well as adults and is most difficult to treat successfully.
According to a study conducted by Profit and Fields (2007), “overbite more than 5 mm is found in nearly 20% of the children and 13% of the adults”. Severe overbite, considered as a clinical problem, should be corrected through orthodontic or orthosurgical intervention. Severe overbite may affect the temporomandibular joint, cause periodontal problems and tooth wearing.
The most common cause is a small lower jaw. Most patients with deep bite have small looking chins.The chin is pushed back by the bad bite which makes it look smaller than its actual size.
Another cause of a deep bite is a missing lower tooth. This creates a condition similar to having a short lower jaw.
Chronic habits as thumb sucking, tongue thrusting can contribute to an overbite.
If a patient already has a deep bite, as they age, their teeth wear down and will cause the overbite to get deeper.
The reason for a deep-bite can be dental (due to the position of the lower teeth, the upper teeth, or both) or related to the growth of your jaws.
A lateral tongue thrust or abnormal tongue posture.
Wearing away of the occlusal surface or tooth abrasion.
Anterior tipping of the posterior teeth into extraction sites.
Prolonged thumb sucking.
Deep bite associated with periodontal disease may cause gingival recession, dentin hypersensitivity, loss of attachment and tooth mobility. This is often a very difficult problem involving prolonged and complex orthodontic treatment along with periodontal management.
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